China’s problem can no longer be considered primarily economic. That train has left. The economic reality is locked in and will remain in place for a long time. China is now in the throes of a political challenge. The coastal region will be growing at a much slower rate than before, if at all. People who came from the interior for jobs will have to return to the interior. A vast and impoverished region, the interior is the population heartland of China—over 60 percent of China’s population lives there. But the coast is the country’s economic heartland, and that dichotomy defines China’s political problem.